In the spring of 1949, the airlift was clearly successful, and in April it delivered more goods than had previously been transported by rail to the city. On 12 May 1949, the USSR lifted the blockade of West Berlin. The Berlin blockade illustrated the competing ideological and economic visions of post-war Europe. In a speech delivered at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on 5 June 1947, US Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed to provide economic and financial assistance to all European countries, subject to closer European cooperation. It was the Marshall Plan or the European Recovery Programme (ERP). The France and Great Britain were very enthusiastic and, three weeks later, convened a conference in Paris, to which they also invited the USSR to draw up a common program in response to General Marshall`s offer. But Vyacheslav Molotov, the Soviet foreign minister, categorically refused to tolerate any international control and rejected economic aid to Germany. The Soviet Union rejected the Marshall Plan and persuaded its satellite countries and neighboring Finland to reject U.S. aid. This rejection deepened the division between Eastern and Western Europe. In January 1949, in response to the Marshall Plan, the USSR created a programme of economic cooperation between the countries of the Soviet bloc, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA or Comecon).
Containment is a strategic geopolitical foreign policy led by the United States. It is loosely related to the term cordon sanitaire, which was later used to describe the geopolitical containment of the Soviet Union in the 1940s. The strategy of “containment” is best known as a foreign policy of the United States and its Cold War allies to prevent the spread of communism after the end of World War II. Interestingly, the true economic benefits of the Marshall Plan have been the subject of much discussion in the decades since its implementation. In fact, reports at the time suggest that Western Europe was already on the road to recovery by the time the plan went into effect. The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy created to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was first announced in Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, and developed on July 12, 1948, when he promised to contain Soviet threats against Greece and Turkey. U.S. military force was generally not involved, but Congress approved free donations of financial aid to support the economies and military of Greece and Turkey. More generally, the Truman Doctrine involved American support for other nations threatened by Soviet communism.
The Truman Doctrine became the foundation of U.S. foreign policy and led to the formation of NATO, a still-in-force military alliance, in 1949. Historians often use Truman`s speech to date the beginning of the Cold War. In the context of the Cold War, this policy was a response to the Soviet Union`s decision to increase communist influence in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. Containment represented a middle line between relaxation (relaxation of relationships) and regression (active replacement of a regime). The basis of the doctrine was articulated in 1946 in a post-war cable by U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. As a description of U.S. foreign policy, the word comes from a report Kennan presented to U.S.
Secretary of Defense James Forrestal in 1947, which was later used in a journal article. The instability created in Europe by World War I (1914-18) set the stage for another international conflict – World War II – which erupted two decades later and proved even more devastating. Adolf. Adolf. The agency also reportedly funded an anti-communist uprising in Ukraine, which was then a Soviet satellite state. 4. What influence did the militant minority have on the reconstruction of Greece? How could this minority have exploited human “misery and misery”? In addition to economic development, one of the stated objectives of the Marshall Plan was to stop the spread of communism on the European continent. In early 1948, after reports of the strengthening of “reactionary elements,” Soviet agents carried out a coup in Czechoslovakia, the only eastern bloc state that the Soviets had allowed to maintain democratic structures. The public brutality of the coup shocked western powers and unleashed a brief horror that swept away the last vestiges of opposition to the Marshall Plan in the U.S. Congress. By the time of the last year of the plan, 1952, economic growth in countries that had received funding had surpassed pre-war levels, a strong indicator of the program`s positive impact, at least economically.
Despite these objections, fear of the growing communist threat almost guaranteed the passage of the law. :616 In May 1947, two months after Truman`s motion, a large majority of Congress approved $400 million in military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey. :553–4:129 The increase in US aid helped defeat the KKE after interim defeats for government troops from 1946 to 1948. :616-17 The Truman Doctrine was the first in a series of containment measures taken by the United States, followed by the economic restoration of Western Europe by the Marshall Plan and military containment by the creation of NATO in 1949. But the Marshall Plan marked Western Europe`s entry into the consumer era, symbolized, for example, by Coca-Cola and Hollywood movies. In 1948, the OEEC negotiated a multilateral agreement on intra-European payments. A trade liberalization program followed in 1949. From July 1950 to December 1958, a European Payments Union (EPU) re-established the convertibility of European currencies and abolished quantitative restrictions on trade.
The OEEC has also promoted economic productivity in Europe through the European Productivity Agency, which it founded in 1953 to study and disseminate technological progress in the industrial sector. As the first umbrella organisation of Europe`s democratic countries with a free market economy, the OEEC was indeed an important precursor of a united Europe. However, it remained an intergovernmental cooperation organization that could not create a customs union. To pass a bill, Truman needed the support of Republicans, who controlled both houses of Congress. Republican spokesman Arthur H. Vandenberg strongly supported Truman and overcame the doubts of isolationists like Senator Robert A. Taft. :127 Truman laid the groundwork for his request by meeting with key congressional leaders with himself, Secretary of State George Marshall and UnderSecretary dean Acheson. Acheson exposed the “domino theory” in the most blatant terms, comparing a communist state to a rotten apple that could spread its infection to an entire barrel. .